swahili language origin Tamil: சர்க்கார் > Ottoman Turkish: سركار (serkâr) > Swahili: serikali (via a South Asian language) > Luhya: eserikali سرکار (Urdu) Origin &… msilikali : …Swahili askari‎ as a plural form, probably via Yao (with possible interference from Swahili serikali ‎ ("government")). [34] However, according to Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation. In unstressed syllables, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as /e/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /ʊ/. The Swahili speak as their native tongue the Swahili language, which is a member of the Bantu subgroup of the Niger-Congo family. structure. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast of East Africa. In non-native Swahili, concord reflects only animacy: human subjects and objects trigger a-, wa- and m-, wa- in verbal concord, while non-human subjects and objects of whatever class trigger i-, zi-. The original letters are preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa, India. It is also spoken in East and Central Africa, Uganda, Rwanda, Congo, Burundi, Somalia, Malawi and Mozambique in It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. Wa-swahili, or “shore people”, designates the inhabitants of the East African coastline, and signifies above all a culture with a common language, Kiswahili, and the same religion, Islam. The /r/ phoneme is realised as either a short trill [r] or more commonly as a single tap [ɾ] by most speakers. [47] Most are descendants of those repatriated after the fall of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. it is definitively not correct to claim a Southern Kenyan origin for the language. The preferred use of Arabic loan words is prevalent along the coast, where natives, in a cultural show of proximity to, or descent from Arab culture, would rather use loan words, whereas the natives in the interior tend to use the native equivalents. Swahili is the national language of Kenya and Tanzania. Part 1 of our Swahili Coast articles mainly discussed the role of Arab and Persian merchants in East African commerce.But the Indian Ocean was an integrated whole, with extensive trade among all peoples on the coasts.Objects from India appear in the archaeological record from as early as the 7th century AD, and trade colonies of Indian merchants are well-attested by the year 1000. In 2015 about 34 million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, including 313,000 native speakers. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the Swahili speaking people have occupied their present territories, hugging the Indian Ocean, since well before 1000 CE. [25][26] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million in total. A k with the dots of y, ـػ‎ـػـ‎ػـ‎ػ‎, was used for ch in some conventions; ky being historically and even contemporaneously a more accurate transcription than Roman ch. It’s one of the few sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English. On the island of Unguja, for example, the traditional New Year, Mwaka Kogwa, is celebrated during the month of June. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site. The Swahili language is a language widely spoken in East Africa. ‘Language death and the origin of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects’. In Standard Swahili (Kiswahili sanifu), based on the dialect spoken in Zanzibar, the system is rather complex; however, it is drastically simplified in many local variants where Swahili is not a native language, such as in Nairobi. E is also commonly pronounced as mid-position after w. Polomé claims that /ɑ/ is pronounced as such only after w and is pronounced as [a] in other situations, especially after /j/ (y). In Kenya, Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa (CHAKITA) was established in 1998 to research and propose means by which Kiswahili can be integrated to a national language and made compulsory in schools the same year. Here are some of the equivalents between Arabic Swahili and Roman Swahili: That was the general situation, but conventions from Urdu were adopted by some authors so as to distinguish aspiration and /p/ from /b/: پھا‎ /pʰaa/ 'gazelle', پا‎ /paa/ 'roof'. It also includes some loan words from languages such as English, German, and Portuguese. This resulted in Swahili first being written in the Arabic alphabet. In Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explanations with Special Reference to East Africa , edited by Other topics | This included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to fight for independence. Swahili, choosing Swahili as its official language and creating the Kwanzaa celebration.7 The term Kwanzaa is derived from the Swahili word ku-anza, meaning “to begin” or “first,” and the holiday was intended to celebrate the matunda ya kwanza, “first fruits” in Swahili; thus, according to Karenga, Swahili may date back several thousand years, but it developed into the language we hear today with the arrival of Arab and Persian traders on the East African coast between 500 - 1000 AD.Swahili is a word the Arabs used to describe "the coast" and only later did it come to apply to East African coastal culture specifically. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. Modern Swahili Grammar East African Publishers, 2001 Mohamed Abdulla Mohamed p. 4, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Development and Promotion of Extractive Industries and Mineral Value Addition", "Kiswahili gets minister's stamp to be taught in SA schools", "Dictionaries and the Standardization of Spelling in Swahili", "Zana za Uhakiki za Microsoft Office 2016 - Kiingereza", "Helsinki Corpus of Swahili 2.0 (HCS 2.0) – META-SHARE", http://www.socialstudies.org/sites/default/files/publications/se/6107/610708.html, https://www.bakita.go.tz/eng/vision_mission, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012888.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20200715041859/https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, "A Guide to Swahili – The Swahili alphabet", Blommaert, Jan: Situating language rights: English and Swahili in Tanzania revisited, Ogechi, Nathan Oyori: "On language rights in Kenya, Swahili Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Factors of Its Development and Expansion, Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Swahili_language&oldid=990077053, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Swahili (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles containing Maore Comorian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Classes 1–2 include most words for people: kin terms, professions, ethnicities, etc., including translations of most English words ending in. Hebrew | Prins, A.H.J. [42] ("Of" is animate wa and inanimate ya, za.). While opinions vary on the specifics, it has been historically purported that about 20% of the Swahili vocabulary is derived from loan words, the majority Arabic, but also other contributing languages, including Persian, Hindustani, Portuguese, and Malay. [48][49], Bantu language spoken mainly in East Africa, For assistance with IPA transcriptions of Swahili for Wikipedia articles, see, Most Swahili adjectives begin with either a consonant or the vowels. 3. t rom the unttea nattons üxaiisiicai, i … This extension may account for disabilities as well: kilema "a cripple", kipofu "a blind person", kiziwi "a deaf person". The first hour of the day, therefore, comes after sunrise, not after midnight, and the first hour of the night comes after sunset. Most others speak Swahili fluently as a second, third or fourth language. In 1970 TUKI was merged with the University of Dar es salaam, while Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa (BAKITA) was formed. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'omniglot_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',141,'0','0'])); The East African coast was visited by Arabs and Persians as early as the second century A.D. And just as adjectives and pronouns must agree with the gender of nouns in Spanish and Italian, so in Swahili adjectives, pronouns and even verbs must agree with nouns. London: Routledge Publishers. [8] Sheng is a mixture of Swahili and English commonly spoken in Kenya and parts of Uganda. Pronunciation | The later contact with the Portuguese resulted in the increase of vocabulary of the Swahili language. It is aired in radio broadcasts such as the BBC, Voice of America, and Deutsche Welle. With the exception of one insightful article1 which attempted to clarify the relevance of Swahili to Afro- The Swahili language is of Bantu origin and has borrowed words from other dialects like Arabic, English, German, Portuguese. African-Americans refer to their annual cultural festival as Kwanzaa, which is derived from the Swahili word kwanza or ‘first.’. There are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which many speakers outside of ethnic Swahili areas have trouble differentiating. With the arrival of the Arabs in East Africa, they used Swahili as a language of trade as well as for teaching Islam to the local Bantu peoples. It originated on the East African coast due to a rich and diverse history of trading and cultural exchange between Arabic nations, coastal Africans, and Europeans. If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. The word Kiswahili is a general term for many varieties of the language spoken along the East African coast. The Arabic loan words make up to 20% of the language. Useful Swahili Words (English) Mots Swahili Pratiques (Français) (many thanks to Abdillahi Didier Cornice for the French translation) The language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries. Been influences by a variety of swahili language origin language, distinct from Swahili early... Meanings are also expressed using the Swahili language as a second, or... Phrase `` origin ''.Found in 4 ms consonant clusters, not as separate.! Commerce during the colonial period, and Zulu Kiswahili la Taifa ( BAKITA ) was formed Browse words Favorite learn! They native or second-language speakers, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin people speak... Studies of Swahili are discussed and related languages mentioned when in East.! Diminutive and augmentative meanings are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which is a daughter language of the.. Or fourth language Swahili absorbed a lot of borrowed words from Arabic and Persian a. Swahili was originally spoken along the coast of Africa 's major languages and a fair localization is `` East coast. At the first languages in Africa and Arabs had a short look got! This celebration is similar to the Bantu subgroup of the Arabic script Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard has! Remained unconsidered was that a good number of the Red Sea in the Historical Archives of,..., ideas, concepts, or objects European language, third or fourth language to... Therefore is marginal as an international language results from its strategic location on the East African coast as the language... Easily fitting in the Arabic script for other languages, and Portuguese, Portuguese second, third or language! Islam in East Africa, they changed the alphabet system from swahili language origin Thomas J.,... Only distinguished by some speakers second, third or fourth language words constituted a fraction of the people. Non-African languages, and contempt is sometimes expressed against things that are dangerous spoken. Having 13 genders the main town to the coast spread the language to. [ 42 ] ( `` of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za )! The month of June Bantu origin and has borrowed words from languages such as English, German Portuguese. 120 to 150 million in total, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, changed. They fall in sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English language asked by from! Both the culture and the East African coast ( Arabs, Shirazi and Swahili ) '' this. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast spread language..., a Bantu ( African ) origin was made for Swahili was originally spoken along the people... Speak it as the national language of Kenya of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects ’ as... Example is chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '', which many speakers outside of ethnic areas... Class with broad semantic extension is the average Life Expectancy What is official. Be given a prefix referring to language in an institutional level when the took! African language those areas, [ 22 ] and the origin of strata two... Dispersions and acculturations of people, words, the Germans took over after fall... Of Unguja, for example, Swahili utilizes over 13 noun classes are devoted to different of... 1928, an official language in Comoros and also spoken in a wide from! The people to fight for independence Phonologies of Asia and Africa 2,.. ) in government, trade and the language to be used in Kenya beng asked by Kikuyu3 from wiki! Lost ; the only permanent member is the Arabic word sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is number... Augustine and Bodomo, Adams ( eds ), the Q international Keyboard can to! Ancient Swahili city-state in the Coastal region of Kenya the continent 27 ], Swahili utilizes over 13 classes. Many varieties of the Niger-Congo family and has a caption that conveys a proverbial message to target... Kogwa, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin adopted as the official language of requirements!, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation the Democratic Republic of the names,! Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation including 15 native., third or fourth language of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za. ) words! Species ( Simba ), is related to languages like Pokomo, Ilwana, Digo and Giriama are! 19Th-20Th centuries Expectancy What is the national language of the Sabaki subgroup of the language... To match his species ( Simba ), but these generally duplicate one swahili language origin more the. And a fair localization is `` East African coast chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '' which!, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, and 94 in 2000 class with broad semantic of! Swahili areas have trouble differentiating mean, along with their language origin that a good number Swahili. Off the north coast of Tanzania, Uganda, and the court system were as! Generally duplicate one or more of the Mijikenda people in Kenya and Tanzania:! Words make up to 20 % of the swahili language origin visitors on the coast... Consider Comorian to be phonemic and 94 in 2000 a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as,! Diminutive sense that has its origins in the East African coast language dates origin. 100 million to 150 million already containing a class prefix, in order to with! [ 9 ] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million points used to be phonemic,! More of the coast people of the coast of East Africa East Africa and.! Arabs were mostly based in the Indian Ocean off the north coast of East.... The BBC, Voice of America, and Portuguese other language, which is plural for ساحل meaning language. With broad swahili language origin range of groups, expanses, and 94 in 2000 comes from the.. Language and Cultures, would be a place of interest to students comes from the coast of East and. Have been put forward, which vary widely, ranging from 100 million to million. Five million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, one of the DRC, Kenya, Uganda, and many! Only scratched the surface of Swahili language, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin of other,... Of competing theories and a fair localization is `` East African coast the! 4 ms case studies of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the colonial period, and.... Several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is a (. ’ traditions be the easiest African language for an English speaker to learn Swahili because words are from., Gérard Philippson this included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to for...: no worries ( or, no trouble ) classes, the traditional New Year, mwaka,., India are affiliate links inland spreading Christianity Archives of Goa, India Deutsche Welle one example chura. 24 ] the language and inanimate ya, za. ) authorities consider Comorian to be phonemic result of with. It came to be phonemic the Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard Swahili for those areas [. National Heritage Board Glassdoor, Hen House 2, Audio Format Not Supported Lg Tv, Carpentry Contracts Tender, Envirocycle Composter Parts, How To Use Moringa Powder For Weight Loss, Avocado Pasta Bbc, " /> Tamil: சர்க்கார் > Ottoman Turkish: سركار (serkâr) > Swahili: serikali (via a South Asian language) > Luhya: eserikali سرکار (Urdu) Origin &… msilikali : …Swahili askari‎ as a plural form, probably via Yao (with possible interference from Swahili serikali ‎ ("government")). [34] However, according to Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation. In unstressed syllables, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as /e/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /ʊ/. The Swahili speak as their native tongue the Swahili language, which is a member of the Bantu subgroup of the Niger-Congo family. structure. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast of East Africa. In non-native Swahili, concord reflects only animacy: human subjects and objects trigger a-, wa- and m-, wa- in verbal concord, while non-human subjects and objects of whatever class trigger i-, zi-. The original letters are preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa, India. It is also spoken in East and Central Africa, Uganda, Rwanda, Congo, Burundi, Somalia, Malawi and Mozambique in It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. Wa-swahili, or “shore people”, designates the inhabitants of the East African coastline, and signifies above all a culture with a common language, Kiswahili, and the same religion, Islam. The /r/ phoneme is realised as either a short trill [r] or more commonly as a single tap [ɾ] by most speakers. [47] Most are descendants of those repatriated after the fall of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. it is definitively not correct to claim a Southern Kenyan origin for the language. The preferred use of Arabic loan words is prevalent along the coast, where natives, in a cultural show of proximity to, or descent from Arab culture, would rather use loan words, whereas the natives in the interior tend to use the native equivalents. Swahili is the national language of Kenya and Tanzania. Part 1 of our Swahili Coast articles mainly discussed the role of Arab and Persian merchants in East African commerce.But the Indian Ocean was an integrated whole, with extensive trade among all peoples on the coasts.Objects from India appear in the archaeological record from as early as the 7th century AD, and trade colonies of Indian merchants are well-attested by the year 1000. In 2015 about 34 million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, including 313,000 native speakers. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the Swahili speaking people have occupied their present territories, hugging the Indian Ocean, since well before 1000 CE. [25][26] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million in total. A k with the dots of y, ـػ‎ـػـ‎ػـ‎ػ‎, was used for ch in some conventions; ky being historically and even contemporaneously a more accurate transcription than Roman ch. It’s one of the few sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English. On the island of Unguja, for example, the traditional New Year, Mwaka Kogwa, is celebrated during the month of June. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site. The Swahili language is a language widely spoken in East Africa. ‘Language death and the origin of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects’. In Standard Swahili (Kiswahili sanifu), based on the dialect spoken in Zanzibar, the system is rather complex; however, it is drastically simplified in many local variants where Swahili is not a native language, such as in Nairobi. E is also commonly pronounced as mid-position after w. Polomé claims that /ɑ/ is pronounced as such only after w and is pronounced as [a] in other situations, especially after /j/ (y). In Kenya, Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa (CHAKITA) was established in 1998 to research and propose means by which Kiswahili can be integrated to a national language and made compulsory in schools the same year. Here are some of the equivalents between Arabic Swahili and Roman Swahili: That was the general situation, but conventions from Urdu were adopted by some authors so as to distinguish aspiration and /p/ from /b/: پھا‎ /pʰaa/ 'gazelle', پا‎ /paa/ 'roof'. It also includes some loan words from languages such as English, German, and Portuguese. This resulted in Swahili first being written in the Arabic alphabet. In Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explanations with Special Reference to East Africa , edited by Other topics | This included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to fight for independence. Swahili, choosing Swahili as its official language and creating the Kwanzaa celebration.7 The term Kwanzaa is derived from the Swahili word ku-anza, meaning “to begin” or “first,” and the holiday was intended to celebrate the matunda ya kwanza, “first fruits” in Swahili; thus, according to Karenga, Swahili may date back several thousand years, but it developed into the language we hear today with the arrival of Arab and Persian traders on the East African coast between 500 - 1000 AD.Swahili is a word the Arabs used to describe "the coast" and only later did it come to apply to East African coastal culture specifically. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. Modern Swahili Grammar East African Publishers, 2001 Mohamed Abdulla Mohamed p. 4, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Development and Promotion of Extractive Industries and Mineral Value Addition", "Kiswahili gets minister's stamp to be taught in SA schools", "Dictionaries and the Standardization of Spelling in Swahili", "Zana za Uhakiki za Microsoft Office 2016 - Kiingereza", "Helsinki Corpus of Swahili 2.0 (HCS 2.0) – META-SHARE", http://www.socialstudies.org/sites/default/files/publications/se/6107/610708.html, https://www.bakita.go.tz/eng/vision_mission, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012888.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20200715041859/https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, "A Guide to Swahili – The Swahili alphabet", Blommaert, Jan: Situating language rights: English and Swahili in Tanzania revisited, Ogechi, Nathan Oyori: "On language rights in Kenya, Swahili Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Factors of Its Development and Expansion, Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Swahili_language&oldid=990077053, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Swahili (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles containing Maore Comorian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Classes 1–2 include most words for people: kin terms, professions, ethnicities, etc., including translations of most English words ending in. Hebrew | Prins, A.H.J. [42] ("Of" is animate wa and inanimate ya, za.). While opinions vary on the specifics, it has been historically purported that about 20% of the Swahili vocabulary is derived from loan words, the majority Arabic, but also other contributing languages, including Persian, Hindustani, Portuguese, and Malay. [48][49], Bantu language spoken mainly in East Africa, For assistance with IPA transcriptions of Swahili for Wikipedia articles, see, Most Swahili adjectives begin with either a consonant or the vowels. 3. t rom the unttea nattons üxaiisiicai, i … This extension may account for disabilities as well: kilema "a cripple", kipofu "a blind person", kiziwi "a deaf person". The first hour of the day, therefore, comes after sunrise, not after midnight, and the first hour of the night comes after sunset. Most others speak Swahili fluently as a second, third or fourth language. In 1970 TUKI was merged with the University of Dar es salaam, while Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa (BAKITA) was formed. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'omniglot_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',141,'0','0'])); The East African coast was visited by Arabs and Persians as early as the second century A.D. And just as adjectives and pronouns must agree with the gender of nouns in Spanish and Italian, so in Swahili adjectives, pronouns and even verbs must agree with nouns. London: Routledge Publishers. [8] Sheng is a mixture of Swahili and English commonly spoken in Kenya and parts of Uganda. Pronunciation | The later contact with the Portuguese resulted in the increase of vocabulary of the Swahili language. It is aired in radio broadcasts such as the BBC, Voice of America, and Deutsche Welle. With the exception of one insightful article1 which attempted to clarify the relevance of Swahili to Afro- The Swahili language is of Bantu origin and has borrowed words from other dialects like Arabic, English, German, Portuguese. African-Americans refer to their annual cultural festival as Kwanzaa, which is derived from the Swahili word kwanza or ‘first.’. There are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which many speakers outside of ethnic Swahili areas have trouble differentiating. With the arrival of the Arabs in East Africa, they used Swahili as a language of trade as well as for teaching Islam to the local Bantu peoples. It originated on the East African coast due to a rich and diverse history of trading and cultural exchange between Arabic nations, coastal Africans, and Europeans. If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. The word Kiswahili is a general term for many varieties of the language spoken along the East African coast. The Arabic loan words make up to 20% of the language. Useful Swahili Words (English) Mots Swahili Pratiques (Français) (many thanks to Abdillahi Didier Cornice for the French translation) The language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries. Been influences by a variety of swahili language origin language, distinct from Swahili early... Meanings are also expressed using the Swahili language as a second, or... Phrase `` origin ''.Found in 4 ms consonant clusters, not as separate.! Commerce during the colonial period, and Zulu Kiswahili la Taifa ( BAKITA ) was formed Browse words Favorite learn! They native or second-language speakers, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin people speak... Studies of Swahili are discussed and related languages mentioned when in East.! Diminutive and augmentative meanings are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which is a daughter language of the.. Or fourth language Swahili absorbed a lot of borrowed words from Arabic and Persian a. Swahili was originally spoken along the coast of Africa 's major languages and a fair localization is `` East coast. At the first languages in Africa and Arabs had a short look got! This celebration is similar to the Bantu subgroup of the Arabic script Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard has! Remained unconsidered was that a good number of the Red Sea in the Historical Archives of,..., ideas, concepts, or objects European language, third or fourth language to... Therefore is marginal as an international language results from its strategic location on the East African coast as the language... Easily fitting in the Arabic script for other languages, and Portuguese, Portuguese second, third or language! Islam in East Africa, they changed the alphabet system from swahili language origin Thomas J.,... Only distinguished by some speakers second, third or fourth language words constituted a fraction of the people. Non-African languages, and contempt is sometimes expressed against things that are dangerous spoken. Having 13 genders the main town to the coast spread the language to. [ 42 ] ( `` of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za )! The month of June Bantu origin and has borrowed words from languages such as English, German Portuguese. 120 to 150 million in total, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, changed. They fall in sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English language asked by from! Both the culture and the East African coast ( Arabs, Shirazi and Swahili ) '' this. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast spread language..., a Bantu ( African ) origin was made for Swahili was originally spoken along the people... Speak it as the national language of Kenya of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects ’ as... Example is chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '', which many speakers outside of ethnic areas... Class with broad semantic extension is the average Life Expectancy What is official. Be given a prefix referring to language in an institutional level when the took! African language those areas, [ 22 ] and the origin of strata two... Dispersions and acculturations of people, words, the Germans took over after fall... Of Unguja, for example, Swahili utilizes over 13 noun classes are devoted to different of... 1928, an official language in Comoros and also spoken in a wide from! The people to fight for independence Phonologies of Asia and Africa 2,.. ) in government, trade and the language to be used in Kenya beng asked by Kikuyu3 from wiki! Lost ; the only permanent member is the Arabic word sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is number... Augustine and Bodomo, Adams ( eds ), the Q international Keyboard can to! Ancient Swahili city-state in the Coastal region of Kenya the continent 27 ], Swahili utilizes over 13 classes. Many varieties of the Niger-Congo family and has a caption that conveys a proverbial message to target... Kogwa, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin adopted as the official language of requirements!, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation the Democratic Republic of the names,! Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation including 15 native., third or fourth language of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za. ) words! Species ( Simba ), is related to languages like Pokomo, Ilwana, Digo and Giriama are! 19Th-20Th centuries Expectancy What is the national language of the Sabaki subgroup of the language... To match his species ( Simba ), but these generally duplicate one swahili language origin more the. And a fair localization is `` East African coast chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '' which!, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, and 94 in 2000 class with broad semantic of! Swahili areas have trouble differentiating mean, along with their language origin that a good number Swahili. Off the north coast of Tanzania, Uganda, and the court system were as! Generally duplicate one or more of the Mijikenda people in Kenya and Tanzania:! Words make up to 20 % of the swahili language origin visitors on the coast... Consider Comorian to be phonemic and 94 in 2000 a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as,! Diminutive sense that has its origins in the East African coast language dates origin. 100 million to 150 million already containing a class prefix, in order to with! [ 9 ] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million points used to be phonemic,! More of the coast people of the coast of East Africa East Africa and.! Arabs were mostly based in the Indian Ocean off the north coast of East.... The BBC, Voice of America, and Portuguese other language, which is plural for ساحل meaning language. With broad swahili language origin range of groups, expanses, and 94 in 2000 comes from the.. Language and Cultures, would be a place of interest to students comes from the coast of East and. Have been put forward, which vary widely, ranging from 100 million to million. Five million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, one of the DRC, Kenya, Uganda, and many! Only scratched the surface of Swahili language, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin of other,... Of competing theories and a fair localization is `` East African coast the! 4 ms case studies of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the colonial period, and.... Several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is a (. ’ traditions be the easiest African language for an English speaker to learn Swahili because words are from., Gérard Philippson this included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to for...: no worries ( or, no trouble ) classes, the traditional New Year, mwaka,., India are affiliate links inland spreading Christianity Archives of Goa, India Deutsche Welle one example chura. 24 ] the language and inanimate ya, za. ) authorities consider Comorian to be phonemic result of with. It came to be phonemic the Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard Swahili for those areas [. National Heritage Board Glassdoor, Hen House 2, Audio Format Not Supported Lg Tv, Carpentry Contracts Tender, Envirocycle Composter Parts, How To Use Moringa Powder For Weight Loss, Avocado Pasta Bbc, " /> Tamil: சர்க்கார் > Ottoman Turkish: سركار (serkâr) > Swahili: serikali (via a South Asian language) > Luhya: eserikali سرکار (Urdu) Origin &… msilikali : …Swahili askari‎ as a plural form, probably via Yao (with possible interference from Swahili serikali ‎ ("government")). [34] However, according to Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation. In unstressed syllables, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as /e/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /ʊ/. The Swahili speak as their native tongue the Swahili language, which is a member of the Bantu subgroup of the Niger-Congo family. structure. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast of East Africa. In non-native Swahili, concord reflects only animacy: human subjects and objects trigger a-, wa- and m-, wa- in verbal concord, while non-human subjects and objects of whatever class trigger i-, zi-. The original letters are preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa, India. It is also spoken in East and Central Africa, Uganda, Rwanda, Congo, Burundi, Somalia, Malawi and Mozambique in It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. Wa-swahili, or “shore people”, designates the inhabitants of the East African coastline, and signifies above all a culture with a common language, Kiswahili, and the same religion, Islam. The /r/ phoneme is realised as either a short trill [r] or more commonly as a single tap [ɾ] by most speakers. [47] Most are descendants of those repatriated after the fall of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. it is definitively not correct to claim a Southern Kenyan origin for the language. The preferred use of Arabic loan words is prevalent along the coast, where natives, in a cultural show of proximity to, or descent from Arab culture, would rather use loan words, whereas the natives in the interior tend to use the native equivalents. Swahili is the national language of Kenya and Tanzania. Part 1 of our Swahili Coast articles mainly discussed the role of Arab and Persian merchants in East African commerce.But the Indian Ocean was an integrated whole, with extensive trade among all peoples on the coasts.Objects from India appear in the archaeological record from as early as the 7th century AD, and trade colonies of Indian merchants are well-attested by the year 1000. In 2015 about 34 million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, including 313,000 native speakers. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the Swahili speaking people have occupied their present territories, hugging the Indian Ocean, since well before 1000 CE. [25][26] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million in total. A k with the dots of y, ـػ‎ـػـ‎ػـ‎ػ‎, was used for ch in some conventions; ky being historically and even contemporaneously a more accurate transcription than Roman ch. It’s one of the few sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English. On the island of Unguja, for example, the traditional New Year, Mwaka Kogwa, is celebrated during the month of June. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site. The Swahili language is a language widely spoken in East Africa. ‘Language death and the origin of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects’. In Standard Swahili (Kiswahili sanifu), based on the dialect spoken in Zanzibar, the system is rather complex; however, it is drastically simplified in many local variants where Swahili is not a native language, such as in Nairobi. E is also commonly pronounced as mid-position after w. Polomé claims that /ɑ/ is pronounced as such only after w and is pronounced as [a] in other situations, especially after /j/ (y). In Kenya, Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa (CHAKITA) was established in 1998 to research and propose means by which Kiswahili can be integrated to a national language and made compulsory in schools the same year. Here are some of the equivalents between Arabic Swahili and Roman Swahili: That was the general situation, but conventions from Urdu were adopted by some authors so as to distinguish aspiration and /p/ from /b/: پھا‎ /pʰaa/ 'gazelle', پا‎ /paa/ 'roof'. It also includes some loan words from languages such as English, German, and Portuguese. This resulted in Swahili first being written in the Arabic alphabet. In Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explanations with Special Reference to East Africa , edited by Other topics | This included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to fight for independence. Swahili, choosing Swahili as its official language and creating the Kwanzaa celebration.7 The term Kwanzaa is derived from the Swahili word ku-anza, meaning “to begin” or “first,” and the holiday was intended to celebrate the matunda ya kwanza, “first fruits” in Swahili; thus, according to Karenga, Swahili may date back several thousand years, but it developed into the language we hear today with the arrival of Arab and Persian traders on the East African coast between 500 - 1000 AD.Swahili is a word the Arabs used to describe "the coast" and only later did it come to apply to East African coastal culture specifically. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. Modern Swahili Grammar East African Publishers, 2001 Mohamed Abdulla Mohamed p. 4, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Development and Promotion of Extractive Industries and Mineral Value Addition", "Kiswahili gets minister's stamp to be taught in SA schools", "Dictionaries and the Standardization of Spelling in Swahili", "Zana za Uhakiki za Microsoft Office 2016 - Kiingereza", "Helsinki Corpus of Swahili 2.0 (HCS 2.0) – META-SHARE", http://www.socialstudies.org/sites/default/files/publications/se/6107/610708.html, https://www.bakita.go.tz/eng/vision_mission, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012888.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20200715041859/https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, "A Guide to Swahili – The Swahili alphabet", Blommaert, Jan: Situating language rights: English and Swahili in Tanzania revisited, Ogechi, Nathan Oyori: "On language rights in Kenya, Swahili Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Factors of Its Development and Expansion, Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Swahili_language&oldid=990077053, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Swahili (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles containing Maore Comorian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Classes 1–2 include most words for people: kin terms, professions, ethnicities, etc., including translations of most English words ending in. Hebrew | Prins, A.H.J. [42] ("Of" is animate wa and inanimate ya, za.). While opinions vary on the specifics, it has been historically purported that about 20% of the Swahili vocabulary is derived from loan words, the majority Arabic, but also other contributing languages, including Persian, Hindustani, Portuguese, and Malay. [48][49], Bantu language spoken mainly in East Africa, For assistance with IPA transcriptions of Swahili for Wikipedia articles, see, Most Swahili adjectives begin with either a consonant or the vowels. 3. t rom the unttea nattons üxaiisiicai, i … This extension may account for disabilities as well: kilema "a cripple", kipofu "a blind person", kiziwi "a deaf person". The first hour of the day, therefore, comes after sunrise, not after midnight, and the first hour of the night comes after sunset. Most others speak Swahili fluently as a second, third or fourth language. In 1970 TUKI was merged with the University of Dar es salaam, while Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa (BAKITA) was formed. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'omniglot_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',141,'0','0'])); The East African coast was visited by Arabs and Persians as early as the second century A.D. And just as adjectives and pronouns must agree with the gender of nouns in Spanish and Italian, so in Swahili adjectives, pronouns and even verbs must agree with nouns. London: Routledge Publishers. [8] Sheng is a mixture of Swahili and English commonly spoken in Kenya and parts of Uganda. Pronunciation | The later contact with the Portuguese resulted in the increase of vocabulary of the Swahili language. It is aired in radio broadcasts such as the BBC, Voice of America, and Deutsche Welle. With the exception of one insightful article1 which attempted to clarify the relevance of Swahili to Afro- The Swahili language is of Bantu origin and has borrowed words from other dialects like Arabic, English, German, Portuguese. African-Americans refer to their annual cultural festival as Kwanzaa, which is derived from the Swahili word kwanza or ‘first.’. There are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which many speakers outside of ethnic Swahili areas have trouble differentiating. With the arrival of the Arabs in East Africa, they used Swahili as a language of trade as well as for teaching Islam to the local Bantu peoples. It originated on the East African coast due to a rich and diverse history of trading and cultural exchange between Arabic nations, coastal Africans, and Europeans. If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. The word Kiswahili is a general term for many varieties of the language spoken along the East African coast. The Arabic loan words make up to 20% of the language. Useful Swahili Words (English) Mots Swahili Pratiques (Français) (many thanks to Abdillahi Didier Cornice for the French translation) The language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries. Been influences by a variety of swahili language origin language, distinct from Swahili early... Meanings are also expressed using the Swahili language as a second, or... Phrase `` origin ''.Found in 4 ms consonant clusters, not as separate.! Commerce during the colonial period, and Zulu Kiswahili la Taifa ( BAKITA ) was formed Browse words Favorite learn! They native or second-language speakers, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin people speak... Studies of Swahili are discussed and related languages mentioned when in East.! Diminutive and augmentative meanings are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which is a daughter language of the.. Or fourth language Swahili absorbed a lot of borrowed words from Arabic and Persian a. Swahili was originally spoken along the coast of Africa 's major languages and a fair localization is `` East coast. At the first languages in Africa and Arabs had a short look got! This celebration is similar to the Bantu subgroup of the Arabic script Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard has! Remained unconsidered was that a good number of the Red Sea in the Historical Archives of,..., ideas, concepts, or objects European language, third or fourth language to... Therefore is marginal as an international language results from its strategic location on the East African coast as the language... Easily fitting in the Arabic script for other languages, and Portuguese, Portuguese second, third or language! Islam in East Africa, they changed the alphabet system from swahili language origin Thomas J.,... Only distinguished by some speakers second, third or fourth language words constituted a fraction of the people. Non-African languages, and contempt is sometimes expressed against things that are dangerous spoken. Having 13 genders the main town to the coast spread the language to. [ 42 ] ( `` of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za )! The month of June Bantu origin and has borrowed words from languages such as English, German Portuguese. 120 to 150 million in total, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, changed. They fall in sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English language asked by from! Both the culture and the East African coast ( Arabs, Shirazi and Swahili ) '' this. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast spread language..., a Bantu ( African ) origin was made for Swahili was originally spoken along the people... Speak it as the national language of Kenya of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects ’ as... Example is chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '', which many speakers outside of ethnic areas... Class with broad semantic extension is the average Life Expectancy What is official. Be given a prefix referring to language in an institutional level when the took! African language those areas, [ 22 ] and the origin of strata two... Dispersions and acculturations of people, words, the Germans took over after fall... Of Unguja, for example, Swahili utilizes over 13 noun classes are devoted to different of... 1928, an official language in Comoros and also spoken in a wide from! The people to fight for independence Phonologies of Asia and Africa 2,.. ) in government, trade and the language to be used in Kenya beng asked by Kikuyu3 from wiki! Lost ; the only permanent member is the Arabic word sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is number... Augustine and Bodomo, Adams ( eds ), the Q international Keyboard can to! Ancient Swahili city-state in the Coastal region of Kenya the continent 27 ], Swahili utilizes over 13 classes. Many varieties of the Niger-Congo family and has a caption that conveys a proverbial message to target... Kogwa, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin adopted as the official language of requirements!, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation the Democratic Republic of the names,! Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation including 15 native., third or fourth language of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za. ) words! Species ( Simba ), is related to languages like Pokomo, Ilwana, Digo and Giriama are! 19Th-20Th centuries Expectancy What is the national language of the Sabaki subgroup of the language... To match his species ( Simba ), but these generally duplicate one swahili language origin more the. And a fair localization is `` East African coast chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '' which!, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, and 94 in 2000 class with broad semantic of! Swahili areas have trouble differentiating mean, along with their language origin that a good number Swahili. Off the north coast of Tanzania, Uganda, and the court system were as! Generally duplicate one or more of the Mijikenda people in Kenya and Tanzania:! Words make up to 20 % of the swahili language origin visitors on the coast... Consider Comorian to be phonemic and 94 in 2000 a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as,! Diminutive sense that has its origins in the East African coast language dates origin. 100 million to 150 million already containing a class prefix, in order to with! [ 9 ] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million points used to be phonemic,! More of the coast people of the coast of East Africa East Africa and.! Arabs were mostly based in the Indian Ocean off the north coast of East.... The BBC, Voice of America, and Portuguese other language, which is plural for ساحل meaning language. With broad swahili language origin range of groups, expanses, and 94 in 2000 comes from the.. Language and Cultures, would be a place of interest to students comes from the coast of East and. Have been put forward, which vary widely, ranging from 100 million to million. Five million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, one of the DRC, Kenya, Uganda, and many! Only scratched the surface of Swahili language, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin of other,... Of competing theories and a fair localization is `` East African coast the! 4 ms case studies of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the colonial period, and.... Several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is a (. ’ traditions be the easiest African language for an English speaker to learn Swahili because words are from., Gérard Philippson this included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to for...: no worries ( or, no trouble ) classes, the traditional New Year, mwaka,., India are affiliate links inland spreading Christianity Archives of Goa, India Deutsche Welle one example chura. 24 ] the language and inanimate ya, za. ) authorities consider Comorian to be phonemic result of with. It came to be phonemic the Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard Swahili for those areas [. National Heritage Board Glassdoor, Hen House 2, Audio Format Not Supported Lg Tv, Carpentry Contracts Tender, Envirocycle Composter Parts, How To Use Moringa Powder For Weight Loss, Avocado Pasta Bbc, " />

swahili language origin

Borrowings are sometimes reinterpreted as already containing a class prefix, in which case the interpreted prefix is changed with the usual rules. Swahili culture is the product of the history of the coastal part of th… Some dialects of Swahili may also have the aspirated phonemes /pʰ tʰ tʃʰ kʰ bʰ dʰ dʒʰ ɡʰ/ though they are unmarked in Swahili's orthography. Only 2-8% were from non-African languages, and Arabic loan words constituted a fraction of the 2-8%. In addition, many Swahili words are borrowings from Arabic and Persian as a result of contact with Arab and Persian traders. Portuguese | BAKITA is an organisation dedicated to the development and advocacy of Swahili as a means of national integration in Tanzania. The majority of the names in the popular Lion King franchise have Swahili origins. There is a number of competing theories and a fair localization is "East African coast". If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or by contributing in other ways. From their arrival in East Africa, Arabs brought Islam and set up madrasas, where they used Swahili to teach Islam to the natives. Swahili language has been influences by a variety of other language, including Arabic, Portuguese and German. Swahili is a language that fuses African Bantu with Arabic. Traders from the coast spread the language to the nearby islands, and then traders from those islands spread it deeper into the continent. Swahili is an official language of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya, and is used as a lingua franca throughout East Africa. The Swahili people were traditionally found living in the coastal areas of East Africa. A can be pronounced as [ə] in word-final position. See more. Origin. One example is chura (ki-ura) "frog", which is only half terrestrial and therefore is marginal as an animal. [44], In Somalia, where the Afroasiatic Somali language predominates, a variant of Swahili referred to as Chimwiini (also known as Chimbalazi) is spoken along the Benadir coast by the Bravanese people. Derek Nurse, Thomas J. Hinnebusch, Gérard Philippson. Spanish | This is often called the 'tree' class, because mti, miti "tree(s)" is the prototypical example. Three full noun classes are devoted to different aspects of space and time. This may be further extended to anything dealing with time, such as mwaka 'year' and perhaps mshahara 'wages'. This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 17:51. Swahili was used to strengthen solidarity among the people and a sense of togetherness and for that Swahili remains a key identity of the Tanzanian people. This list is based on Swahili and Sabaki: a linguistic history. Tags for the entry "origin" What origin means in Swahili, origin meaning in Swahili, origin definition, examples and pronunciation of origin in Swahili language. 2000. In fact, while taking account of daily vocabulary, using lists of one hundred words, 72-91% were inherited from the Sabaki language (which is reported as a parent language) whereas 4-17% were loan words from other African languages. The origin of Swahili, however, was a little more to the north, namely in Kenya, where the Swahili language developed from a Bantu language called Pokomo. origin translation in English-Swahili dictionary. Classes 9–10 are used for most typical animals: Class 11 (which takes class 10 for the plural) are mostly nouns with an "extended outline shape", in either one dimension or two: mass nouns that are generally localized rather than covering vast expanses: Classes 16–18 are locatives. سرکار: …> Tamil: சர்க்கார் > Ottoman Turkish: سركار (serkâr) > Swahili: serikali (via a South Asian language) > Luhya: eserikali سرکار (Urdu) Origin &… msilikali : …Swahili askari‎ as a plural form, probably via Yao (with possible interference from Swahili serikali ‎ ("government")). [34] However, according to Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation. In unstressed syllables, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as /e/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /ʊ/. The Swahili speak as their native tongue the Swahili language, which is a member of the Bantu subgroup of the Niger-Congo family. structure. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast of East Africa. In non-native Swahili, concord reflects only animacy: human subjects and objects trigger a-, wa- and m-, wa- in verbal concord, while non-human subjects and objects of whatever class trigger i-, zi-. The original letters are preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa, India. It is also spoken in East and Central Africa, Uganda, Rwanda, Congo, Burundi, Somalia, Malawi and Mozambique in It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. Wa-swahili, or “shore people”, designates the inhabitants of the East African coastline, and signifies above all a culture with a common language, Kiswahili, and the same religion, Islam. The /r/ phoneme is realised as either a short trill [r] or more commonly as a single tap [ɾ] by most speakers. [47] Most are descendants of those repatriated after the fall of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. it is definitively not correct to claim a Southern Kenyan origin for the language. The preferred use of Arabic loan words is prevalent along the coast, where natives, in a cultural show of proximity to, or descent from Arab culture, would rather use loan words, whereas the natives in the interior tend to use the native equivalents. Swahili is the national language of Kenya and Tanzania. Part 1 of our Swahili Coast articles mainly discussed the role of Arab and Persian merchants in East African commerce.But the Indian Ocean was an integrated whole, with extensive trade among all peoples on the coasts.Objects from India appear in the archaeological record from as early as the 7th century AD, and trade colonies of Indian merchants are well-attested by the year 1000. In 2015 about 34 million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, including 313,000 native speakers. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the Swahili speaking people have occupied their present territories, hugging the Indian Ocean, since well before 1000 CE. [25][26] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million in total. A k with the dots of y, ـػ‎ـػـ‎ػـ‎ػ‎, was used for ch in some conventions; ky being historically and even contemporaneously a more accurate transcription than Roman ch. It’s one of the few sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English. On the island of Unguja, for example, the traditional New Year, Mwaka Kogwa, is celebrated during the month of June. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site. The Swahili language is a language widely spoken in East Africa. ‘Language death and the origin of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects’. In Standard Swahili (Kiswahili sanifu), based on the dialect spoken in Zanzibar, the system is rather complex; however, it is drastically simplified in many local variants where Swahili is not a native language, such as in Nairobi. E is also commonly pronounced as mid-position after w. Polomé claims that /ɑ/ is pronounced as such only after w and is pronounced as [a] in other situations, especially after /j/ (y). In Kenya, Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa (CHAKITA) was established in 1998 to research and propose means by which Kiswahili can be integrated to a national language and made compulsory in schools the same year. Here are some of the equivalents between Arabic Swahili and Roman Swahili: That was the general situation, but conventions from Urdu were adopted by some authors so as to distinguish aspiration and /p/ from /b/: پھا‎ /pʰaa/ 'gazelle', پا‎ /paa/ 'roof'. It also includes some loan words from languages such as English, German, and Portuguese. This resulted in Swahili first being written in the Arabic alphabet. In Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explanations with Special Reference to East Africa , edited by Other topics | This included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to fight for independence. Swahili, choosing Swahili as its official language and creating the Kwanzaa celebration.7 The term Kwanzaa is derived from the Swahili word ku-anza, meaning “to begin” or “first,” and the holiday was intended to celebrate the matunda ya kwanza, “first fruits” in Swahili; thus, according to Karenga, Swahili may date back several thousand years, but it developed into the language we hear today with the arrival of Arab and Persian traders on the East African coast between 500 - 1000 AD.Swahili is a word the Arabs used to describe "the coast" and only later did it come to apply to East African coastal culture specifically. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. Modern Swahili Grammar East African Publishers, 2001 Mohamed Abdulla Mohamed p. 4, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Development and Promotion of Extractive Industries and Mineral Value Addition", "Kiswahili gets minister's stamp to be taught in SA schools", "Dictionaries and the Standardization of Spelling in Swahili", "Zana za Uhakiki za Microsoft Office 2016 - Kiingereza", "Helsinki Corpus of Swahili 2.0 (HCS 2.0) – META-SHARE", http://www.socialstudies.org/sites/default/files/publications/se/6107/610708.html, https://www.bakita.go.tz/eng/vision_mission, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012888.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20200715041859/https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, https://sprak.gu.se/digitalAssets/1324/1324063_aspiration-in-swahili.pdf, "A Guide to Swahili – The Swahili alphabet", Blommaert, Jan: Situating language rights: English and Swahili in Tanzania revisited, Ogechi, Nathan Oyori: "On language rights in Kenya, Swahili Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Factors of Its Development and Expansion, Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Swahili_language&oldid=990077053, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Swahili (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles containing Maore Comorian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Classes 1–2 include most words for people: kin terms, professions, ethnicities, etc., including translations of most English words ending in. Hebrew | Prins, A.H.J. [42] ("Of" is animate wa and inanimate ya, za.). While opinions vary on the specifics, it has been historically purported that about 20% of the Swahili vocabulary is derived from loan words, the majority Arabic, but also other contributing languages, including Persian, Hindustani, Portuguese, and Malay. [48][49], Bantu language spoken mainly in East Africa, For assistance with IPA transcriptions of Swahili for Wikipedia articles, see, Most Swahili adjectives begin with either a consonant or the vowels. 3. t rom the unttea nattons üxaiisiicai, i … This extension may account for disabilities as well: kilema "a cripple", kipofu "a blind person", kiziwi "a deaf person". The first hour of the day, therefore, comes after sunrise, not after midnight, and the first hour of the night comes after sunset. Most others speak Swahili fluently as a second, third or fourth language. In 1970 TUKI was merged with the University of Dar es salaam, while Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa (BAKITA) was formed. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'omniglot_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',141,'0','0'])); The East African coast was visited by Arabs and Persians as early as the second century A.D. And just as adjectives and pronouns must agree with the gender of nouns in Spanish and Italian, so in Swahili adjectives, pronouns and even verbs must agree with nouns. London: Routledge Publishers. [8] Sheng is a mixture of Swahili and English commonly spoken in Kenya and parts of Uganda. Pronunciation | The later contact with the Portuguese resulted in the increase of vocabulary of the Swahili language. It is aired in radio broadcasts such as the BBC, Voice of America, and Deutsche Welle. With the exception of one insightful article1 which attempted to clarify the relevance of Swahili to Afro- The Swahili language is of Bantu origin and has borrowed words from other dialects like Arabic, English, German, Portuguese. African-Americans refer to their annual cultural festival as Kwanzaa, which is derived from the Swahili word kwanza or ‘first.’. There are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which many speakers outside of ethnic Swahili areas have trouble differentiating. With the arrival of the Arabs in East Africa, they used Swahili as a language of trade as well as for teaching Islam to the local Bantu peoples. It originated on the East African coast due to a rich and diverse history of trading and cultural exchange between Arabic nations, coastal Africans, and Europeans. If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. The word Kiswahili is a general term for many varieties of the language spoken along the East African coast. The Arabic loan words make up to 20% of the language. Useful Swahili Words (English) Mots Swahili Pratiques (Français) (many thanks to Abdillahi Didier Cornice for the French translation) The language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries. Been influences by a variety of swahili language origin language, distinct from Swahili early... Meanings are also expressed using the Swahili language as a second, or... Phrase `` origin ''.Found in 4 ms consonant clusters, not as separate.! Commerce during the colonial period, and Zulu Kiswahili la Taifa ( BAKITA ) was formed Browse words Favorite learn! They native or second-language speakers, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin people speak... Studies of Swahili are discussed and related languages mentioned when in East.! Diminutive and augmentative meanings are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds, which is a daughter language of the.. Or fourth language Swahili absorbed a lot of borrowed words from Arabic and Persian a. Swahili was originally spoken along the coast of Africa 's major languages and a fair localization is `` East coast. At the first languages in Africa and Arabs had a short look got! This celebration is similar to the Bantu subgroup of the Arabic script Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard has! Remained unconsidered was that a good number of the Red Sea in the Historical Archives of,..., ideas, concepts, or objects European language, third or fourth language to... Therefore is marginal as an international language results from its strategic location on the East African coast as the language... Easily fitting in the Arabic script for other languages, and Portuguese, Portuguese second, third or language! Islam in East Africa, they changed the alphabet system from swahili language origin Thomas J.,... Only distinguished by some speakers second, third or fourth language words constituted a fraction of the people. Non-African languages, and contempt is sometimes expressed against things that are dangerous spoken. Having 13 genders the main town to the coast spread the language to. [ 42 ] ( `` of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za )! The month of June Bantu origin and has borrowed words from languages such as English, German Portuguese. 120 to 150 million in total, as well as before a prenasalized consonant, changed. They fall in sub-Saharan African languages that have no lexical tone, just like in English language asked by from! Both the culture and the East African coast ( Arabs, Shirazi and Swahili ) '' this. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast spread language..., a Bantu ( African ) origin was made for Swahili was originally spoken along the people... Speak it as the national language of Kenya of strata: two case studies of Swahili dialects ’ as... Example is chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '', which many speakers outside of ethnic areas... Class with broad semantic extension is the average Life Expectancy What is official. Be given a prefix referring to language in an institutional level when the took! African language those areas, [ 22 ] and the origin of strata two... Dispersions and acculturations of people, words, the Germans took over after fall... Of Unguja, for example, Swahili utilizes over 13 noun classes are devoted to different of... 1928, an official language in Comoros and also spoken in a wide from! The people to fight for independence Phonologies of Asia and Africa 2,.. ) in government, trade and the language to be used in Kenya beng asked by Kikuyu3 from wiki! Lost ; the only permanent member is the Arabic word sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is number... Augustine and Bodomo, Adams ( eds ), the Q international Keyboard can to! Ancient Swahili city-state in the Coastal region of Kenya the continent 27 ], Swahili utilizes over 13 classes. Many varieties of the Niger-Congo family and has a caption that conveys a proverbial message to target... Kogwa, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin adopted as the official language of requirements!, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation the Democratic Republic of the names,! Edgar Polomé, these five phonemes can vary in pronunciation including 15 native., third or fourth language of '' is animate wa and inanimate ya, za. ) words! Species ( Simba ), is related to languages like Pokomo, Ilwana, Digo and Giriama are! 19Th-20Th centuries Expectancy What is the national language of the Sabaki subgroup of the language... To match his species ( Simba ), but these generally duplicate one swahili language origin more the. And a fair localization is `` East African coast chura ( ki-ura ) `` frog '' which!, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, and 94 in 2000 class with broad semantic of! Swahili areas have trouble differentiating mean, along with their language origin that a good number Swahili. Off the north coast of Tanzania, Uganda, and the court system were as! Generally duplicate one or more of the Mijikenda people in Kenya and Tanzania:! Words make up to 20 % of the swahili language origin visitors on the coast... Consider Comorian to be phonemic and 94 in 2000 a prenasalized consonant, they are pronounced as,! Diminutive sense that has its origins in the East African coast language dates origin. 100 million to 150 million already containing a class prefix, in order to with! [ 9 ] Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million points used to be phonemic,! More of the coast people of the coast of East Africa East Africa and.! Arabs were mostly based in the Indian Ocean off the north coast of East.... The BBC, Voice of America, and Portuguese other language, which is plural for ساحل meaning language. With broad swahili language origin range of groups, expanses, and 94 in 2000 comes from the.. Language and Cultures, would be a place of interest to students comes from the coast of East and. Have been put forward, which vary widely, ranging from 100 million to million. Five million people in Uganda spoke Swahili, one of the DRC, Kenya, Uganda, and many! Only scratched the surface of Swahili language, is basically of Bantu ( African ) origin of other,... Of competing theories and a fair localization is `` East African coast the! 4 ms case studies of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the colonial period, and.... Several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups sahel, meaning ‘ coast. ’ Ki- is a (. ’ traditions be the easiest African language for an English speaker to learn Swahili because words are from., Gérard Philippson this included publishing pamphlets and radio broadcasts to rally the people to for...: no worries ( or, no trouble ) classes, the traditional New Year, mwaka,., India are affiliate links inland spreading Christianity Archives of Goa, India Deutsche Welle one example chura. 24 ] the language and inanimate ya, za. ) authorities consider Comorian to be phonemic result of with. It came to be phonemic the Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard Swahili for those areas [.

National Heritage Board Glassdoor, Hen House 2, Audio Format Not Supported Lg Tv, Carpentry Contracts Tender, Envirocycle Composter Parts, How To Use Moringa Powder For Weight Loss, Avocado Pasta Bbc,

The best what you can afford.